Pakistani Naswar - The Cheapest Risk Factor For Cancer: Assessment Of Potential Toxicity Of Oral Tobacco Product - Naswar - Available On The Pakistani Market
Von Ullah, Zaki; Saeed, Muhammad
Naswar is a Smokeless Tobacco Product (STP) widely used in Pakistan. It has been correlated with oral and esophageal cancer in recent clinical studies. The toxic effects associated with S.T.P have been associated with trace level contaminants present in these products. That is why toxin level of Pakistani Naswar is reported for the first time in this study. Thirty Pakistani brands of Naswar were tested for a variety of toxic constituents and carcinogens such as cadmium, arsenic, lead and other carcinogenic metals; nitrite and nitrate; and nicotine and pH. The average values of all the toxins studied were well above their allowable limits, making the product a health risk for its consumers. Calculated life time cancer risk is well above the minimum target range for potentially hazardous substances.This study shows that the production, packaging, sale and consumption of Naswar should be regulated, and the general public be made aware of its harmful effects, so that to protect them from the health hazards associated with its consumption.
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